Springfield's original name was Calhoun, after Senator of . The land that Springfield now occupies was originally settled by trappers and traders who came to the in 1818. The settlement's first cabin was built in 1820, by John Kelly. It was located at what is now the northwest corner of Second Street and Jefferson Street. In 1821, Calhoun became the county seat of Sangamon County due to fertile soil and trading opportunities. Settlers from , , and as far as came to the city. By 1832, Senator Calhoun had fallen out of the favor with the public and the town renamed itself Springfield after . At that time, Springfield, Massachusetts was comparable to modern-day —known for industrial innovation, concentrated prosperity, and the celebrated . Most importantly, it was a city that had built itself up from frontier outpost to national power through ingenuity – an example that the newly named Springfield, Illinois, sought to emulate. was the first capital of the Illinois Territory from its organization in 1809, continuing through statehood in 1818, and through the first year as a state in 1819. was the second state capital of Illinois from 1819 to 1839. Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in 1839. The designation was largely due to the efforts of and his associates; nicknamed the "Long Nine" for their combined height of 54 feet (16 m).
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Chicago and its suburbs are also home to a large and growing population of , , and . Muslims constituted the largest non-Christian group with 359,264 adherents. Illinois has the largest concentration of Muslims by state in the country with 2800 Muslims per 100,000 citizens. The largest and oldest surviving in the world is located in and the oldest standing mosque in the U.S. is the of the Muslim Community, located in the neighbourhood of Chicago. The Chicago area has a large community, particularly in the suburbs of and . Current Chicago Mayor is the Windy City's first Jewish Mayor.
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Illinois played an important role in the early , with , becoming a gathering place for Mormons in the early 1840s. Nauvoo was the location of the , which led to the separation of the Mormon movement into . , the largest of the sects to emerge from the Mormon schism, has over 55,000 adherents in Illinois today.
List of Illinois locations by per capita income - Wikipedia